Cairo has played a significant role in Islamic history. It was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid Caliphate and served as their capital until the Ayyubid dynasty, who were Sunni Muslims, conquered it in 1171 CE.
During the Fatimid period, Cairo became a center of learning and culture, with the founding of the famous Al-Azhar University in 970 CE, which remains one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the Islamic world. The city also saw the construction of many beautiful mosques and palaces, including the Al-Azhar Mosque, the Al-Hakim Mosque, and the Palace of the Caliph.
After the Ayyubid conquest, Cairo continued to thrive as a cultural and commercial center, with the construction of new mosques and public buildings, including the famous Citadel of Cairo, built by Saladin to protect the city from Crusader attacks. The city also played an important role in the Mamluk Sultanate, which ruled Egypt and much of the Levant from the 13th to the 16th centuries.
Today, Cairo remains a vibrant and bustling city, with a rich Islamic heritage that is evident in its many historic landmarks and cultural institutions.