Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (also known as Umar II) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720 CE. He is widely regarded as one of the most just and pious rulers in Islamic history, and is known for his efforts to promote social justice, religious tolerance, and good governance. During his brief reign, he implemented several important reforms, including the abolition of the controversial tax on non-Muslims, the establishment of a centralized treasury, and the standardization of weights and measures. He was also a patron of learning and encouraged the study of Islamic sciences, including hadith and fiqh. Umar's reign is seen as a period of relative peace and stability in the early Islamic world, and his legacy continues to inspire Muslims today.
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