The historic city of Fes, one of the most important cultural and religious centers in Islamic history. It was founded in the 9th century and became the capital of the Idrisid dynasty, which played a significant role in the spread of Islam in North Africa. Fes is known for its well-preserved old city, or medina, which is home to many historic mosques, madrasas (Islamic schools), and other religious and cultural landmarks. It was also a center for Islamic scholarship and learning, with famous institutions such as the University of al-Qarawiyyin, which was founded in the 9th century and is considered the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Fes continues to be an important cultural and religious center in the Islamic world, and attracts many visitors each year to its rich history and architecture.